The Common Types of Fire-Resistant Doors Nowadays

Today, Alumax Vietnam would like to share with our valued customers the common types of fire-resistant doors, the criteria for classification, and the structure of fire-resistant doors. Currently, there are various types of fire-resistant doors on the market made from different materials with diverse designs. Depending on the installation location and the risk of fire and explosions in each place, people will choose the door material that suits their needs. Below is a classification of various types of fire-resistant doors based on their construction materials for your reference when selecting the right type for your home.

Safety and fire explosion prevention for buildings are crucial issues that need attention, requiring enhanced safety protection measures. This is especially important for large structures such as skyscrapers, residential buildings, shopping centers, etc. Fire and explosion prevention is essential to safeguard both property and human lives. Fire-resistant doors are manufactured with special features to limit the rapid spread of smoke and fire in a space.

Fire-resistant doors help prevent the rapid spread of a fire in case of an incident. They also aid in blocking toxic smoke that can affect human respiratory systems, thereby extending the time for safe evacuation. Additionally, preventing the spread of fire provides favorable conditions for firefighting forces to handle the situation more efficiently, minimizing potential damage to property and individuals.

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1.Fire-Resistant Doors: What Are They?

Fire-resistant doors are specially designed doors with the capability to withstand high temperatures while providing fire resistance. With these distinctive design features, these doors are installed in various locations such as room exits, emergency exits, areas with a high risk of incidents, or isolated zones. Currently, common types of fire-resistant doors in the market include steel-core fire doors, fire-resistant glass doors, and wood grain fire-resistant doors. These products are widely applied in constructions like apartments, shopping centers, hospitals, and schools.

It is essential for households to use fire-resistant doors that have undergone fire resistance testing. The use of these doors ensures safety for families and adjacent units in the event of a fire.

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2.The Functions of Fire-Resistant Doors

Despite being called fire-resistant doors, most types of fire-resistant doors nowadays are not designed to completely extinguish a fire; instead, they are designed to withstand high temperatures. These doors are used to prevent the spread of fire, extending the time it takes for the fire to reach other areas within a specified period (60, 90, 120 minutes, depending on the door type).

By containing the fire, these doors allow people in the building to evacuate safely in case of an emergency. They also help protect property while the fire is being extinguished, minimizing fire damage.

Furthermore, doors made from fire-resistant glass, stainless steel with a thickness of 1 to 1.2 mm, also contribute to sound insulation, noise reduction, and protection against theft.

3.Classification of Fire-Resistant Doors

Fire-resistant doors are classified based on various criteria to help people determine the right type of door for different constructions and locations. This enhances the efficiency of door operations and balances costs for users.

Doors can be classified based on their fire resistance duration. Common classifications include 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes. These represent the maximum time the door can function effectively. After this time, they may deform, become damaged, and lose their fire resistance capabilities. The choice of the appropriate door type depends on the location, importance, and specific requirements. For instance, technical rooms and storage rooms may require doors with higher fire resistance to minimize potential damage.

Doors can also be classified based on the number of door leaves, with either one or two leaves. Double-leaf doors are often used in spacious areas like halls and factory doors, while single-leaf doors are installed in exits, hallways, staircases, and emergency exits. This classification helps determine the type of door needed based on the installation area’s size.

Doors can be classified based on the material used, including steel doors, wood grain steel doors, iron doors, wooden doors, or glass doors. Currently, the most common type is steel doors due to their easy maintenance, excellent fire resistance, and stable cost. Wood grain steel doors and wooden doors are often used in apartments and private rooms for their aesthetic appeal. Glass doors are typically used in large halls and areas that require simple separation, such as offices.

Doors can also be classified based on their usage area, such as emergency exit doors, apartment doors, and technical room doors. Emergency exit doors are typically installed in building escape routes, separating different floors. These doors usually should not have locks to prevent locking when there are people inside. Technical room doors are used in critical rooms and may have locks. Apartment doors fall into a similar category.

Understanding the classifications helps in choosing the right door characteristics and functions. Clear knowledge of each type’s application ensures accurate selection.

4.Criteria for Classifying Steel Fire-Resistant Doors

4.1. Structural Form of the Door:

    • Swinging Fire-Resistant Doors: Swinging fire-resistant doors are the most commonly used type today. They are versatile and suitable for various purposes, such as in schools, hospitals, shopping centers, etc. These doors have a design that rotates around a single axis, acting as the sole hinge. The hinge can be placed on either the right or left side of the entrance. Therefore, they are also known as one-sided swinging doors.
    • Sliding or Pushing Fire-Resistant Doors: Sliding (pushing) doors are designed for buildings containing materials or activities prone to fire or explosions. This type of door is divided into two categories: automatic sliding (pushing) doors and semi-automatic sliding (pushing) doors. Automatic sliding (pushing) doors open and close using a motor, while semi-automatic doors use a counterbalance system to close automatically.
    • Rolling Fire-Resistant Doors: Rolling fire-resistant doors are designed to prevent the spread of fires and explosions. They address the increasing frequency of fire outbreaks in recent years, reducing concerns for people. These doors have a distinct design compared to traditional rolling doors. Therefore, they serve both as fire-resistant products and as alternatives to current conventional rolling doors.

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Flash Fire-Resistant Doors

The flash fire-resistant door is a type of fire-resistant door that utilizes fire-resistant materials. Additionally, it is designed with slats arranged parallel to each other at a 45-degree angle. Therefore, this door not only has fire-resistant capabilities but also provides protection against sunlight and rain. Currently, flash fire-resistant doors are commonly used in various constructions and workshops.

4.2. Classification of Fire-Resistant Doors Based on Materials:

There is a wide variety of materials used in manufacturing fire-resistant doors today. Different materials have varying degrees of heat resistance. Understanding the composition of these doors helps make informed choices when selecting the most suitable door. Thus, Alumax Vietnam aims to provide customers with insights into the materials used in various types of fire-resistant doors.

Steel-Core Fire-Resistant Doors

Steel fire-resistant doors are among the most prevalent types in the current market. These doors are made from high-quality steel materials and are commonly used in areas such as staircases and emergency exits in apartments or buildings.

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Steel Fire-Resistant Doors: Features and Advantages

Steel fire-resistant doors exhibit several distinctive characteristics:

  • The doors typically have a thickness ranging from 0.8 to 1.5mm, usually made from high-quality sheet metal.
  • The core of the door is often composed of fire-resistant materials such as honeycomb paper or glass wool.
  • The fire resistance duration of the door falls within the range of 60 to 120 minutes, and the door leaf is coated with oil paint or electrostatic paint.
  • Accompanying accessories include: lock cylinder, emergency escape bar, and hydraulic door closer.

Notable Advantages of Steel Fire-Resistant Doors:

  1. High Durability: Steel fire-resistant doors are highly durable, resistant to warping, and ensure a standard level of tightness.
  2. Variety of Colors: These doors come in a wide range of colors. Additionally, steel fire-resistant doors are easy to maintain, have straightforward maintenance procedures, and are reasonably priced.

Wood Grain Steel Fire-Resistant Doors

Wood grain steel fire-resistant doors are a type of fire-resistant door manufactured using modern technology in a closed-loop process.

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Wood Grain Steel Fire-Resistant Doors: Features and Advantages

Wood grain steel fire-resistant doors possess several characteristics:

  • These doors typically have a thickness ranging from 0.6 to 1.5mm and are made from electro-galvanized steel.
  • The door leaf is coated with static paint, creating patterns that resemble natural wood grain.
  • Similar to steel fire-resistant doors, the core of wood grain steel fire-resistant doors is made from honeycomb paper or glass wool.

Advantages of Wood Grain Steel Fire-Resistant Doors:

  1. High Durability: Wood grain steel fire-resistant doors are durable, resistant to warping, and meet standard tightness requirements.
  2. Reasonable Price: These doors are reasonably priced, and the installation cost is relatively low.
  3. Aesthetic Appeal: The doors feature patterns resembling natural wood grain, providing a warm and inviting feel.

Fire-Resistant Glass Doors

With advanced technology, fire-resistant glass doors can withstand higher temperatures. These doors add elegance and softness to interior decoration. The special glass material is divided into 3 layers: E to EL. As a result, fire-resistant glass doors can endure temperatures up to 1600°F compared to the 250°F of conventional glass doors.

Notable Advantages of Fire-Resistant Glass Doors:

  1. Heat Transmission Prevention: Fire-resistant glass doors impede heat transmission, slowing down the burning process of the glass.
  2. Safety Even When Broken: Even if the glass breaks, it remains intact, held together by steel mesh.
  3. Effective Smoke Containment: Fire-resistant glass doors effectively prevent the spread of smoke, minimizing its impact on people’s respiratory systems.
  4. Variety of Designs: There are various types of fire-resistant glass doors with attractive and modern designs.

Fire-Resistant Stainless Steel Doors

Fire-resistant stainless steel doors have superior fire resistance compared to steel doors, but they come with a higher cost, leading to limited usage.

Key Features of Fire-Resistant Stainless Steel Doors:

  • Made from full-sheet stainless steel material, typically with a thickness ranging from 0.8 to 1.5mm.
  • The core inside the door is often made from honeycomb paper or glass wool, providing exceptional fire resistance.
  • Remarkably, the fire resistance duration of stainless steel doors can be up to 180 minutes.

Advantages of Fire-Resistant Stainless Steel Doors:

  1. Excellent Fire Resistance: Stainless steel doors exhibit excellent fire resistance, surpassing that of steel doors.
  2. Adaptability to Harsh Weather: These doors adapt well to harsh weather conditions without oxidation.
  3. No Warping or Shrinking: They remain unaffected by warping or shrinking.
  4. Elegant and Sophisticated Design: Stainless steel doors boast a sophisticated and elegant design.

Classification of Fire-Resistant Doors Based on the Number of Door Leaves

Currently, fire-resistant doors come in various designs and styles, making it challenging for customers to choose. One common dilemma is whether to install a single-leaf or double-leaf fire-resistant door. Below, Alumax Vietnam provides information to help customers make the right choice for their homes.

Single-Leaf Fire-Resistant Doors

Single-leaf fire-resistant doors are often installed in areas with small door frames, such as exits, emergency doors, etc. They are made of steel with a thickness of 1mm and have a fire resistance duration of approximately 60 to 120 minutes.

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Double-Leaf Fire Doors

Fire-resistant double-leaf doors are typically made from steel, with a thickness ranging from 1.2 to 2.5mm. These doors are commonly installed in areas with medium-sized door frames such as warehouses or exit routes in industrial plants. Additionally, both leaves of the double-leaf fire doors have a fire resistance duration of approximately 60 to 180 minutes.

Leaning Double-Leaf Fire Doors

Leaning double-leaf fire-resistant doors are also made from steel with a thickness of about 1.2 to 2.5mm. The fire resistance duration for these doors is typically in the range of 60 to 180 minutes. These doors have an asymmetric design with one leaf frequently opened, while the other leaf remains closed and is only opened when necessary. This type of door is commonly applied to entryways in hospitals…

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4.4. Classification of Doors According to the Fire Resistance Limit Standard

The EI standard in fire resistance primarily specifies the fire resistance limit of fire-resistant materials. This limit is determined by a time duration, calculated from the start of the standard heat test until the appearance of one or multiple consecutive signs of the defined state limits, with the given conditions as follows:

60-minute fire-resistant doors:

This is one of the most commonly used types of doors, suitable for high-rise fire-resistant door standards. These doors have a thickness of around 0.8mm with a fire resistance duration of one hour. After 60 minutes, the door will deform, lose its fire resistance capability, and prevent fire and smoke from spreading to other areas. These doors are often installed in residential buildings at main entrances or bedroom doors. The advantage of 60-minute fire-resistant doors is their diverse and rich size range, suitable for various locations and structures. Additionally, they exhibit excellent weather resistance.

90-minute fire-resistant doors:

These doors have a thickness of about 1mm with the ability to withstand heat for 90 minutes. After 90 minutes, the fire-resistant door will deform, lose its fire resistance capability, and prevent fire and smoke from spreading to other areas. This type of door is commonly installed in administrative offices, hospitals, restaurants, and supermarkets. The advantages include good noise resistance, impermeability, and fire resistance, ensuring safety in case of fire. Moreover, 90-minute fire-resistant doors come in a diverse and varied design suitable for different architectural designs.

120-minute fire-resistant doors:

These doors have a thickness of about 1mm, with a core equipped with fiberglass to enhance fire resistance and insulation. They are often installed in high-rise buildings and commercial centers. The advantages of 120-minute fire-resistant doors include an elegant design, not only ensuring technical aspects but also aesthetic considerations. Additionally, these doors have high durability and help users save costs.

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5. Structure of Fire-Resistant Steel Doors

The structure of fire-resistant doors includes the door frame, architrave, and door leaf. The main materials composing fire-resistant steel doors are standard steel sheets and the core (fire-resistant material), which consists of fiberglass, glass fabric, and Magnesium oxide. Recently, as per the requirements of the Fire Prevention and Fighting Police Department, all fire-resistant steel doors, regardless of the interior material, such as magnesium oxide, honeycomb paper, fiberglass, or gypsum, must undergo a real door sample burning test at the construction site and must pass to be certified.

Fire-resistant steel doors have a distinctive structure with various components. Depending on the type, each door will have a different design, or the structure will vary based on user needs. However, in the market, the structure of various types of doors generally includes:

Firstly, the door frame is constructed from steel sheets with a thickness of 1.2 to 2.0mm and is powder-coated.

The most crucial part of the fire-resistant door is the door leaf, constructed with three layers as follows:

  • Two outer layers are made of steel sheets with a thickness of 0.8 – 1.2mm, suitable for the selected fire resistance standard, ensuring solidity and durability for the door.
  • Between the two steel layers of the door leaf is the core fire-resistant material, a vital component determining the fire resistance level. It can be composed of materials with non-flammable and low thermal conductivity properties at temperatures above 1000 degrees Celsius.

Another equally important component is the sealing gasket around the door leaf. Here, there are two types of gaskets: one is a rubber gasket to create smoothness when opening and closing the door, and the other is an expanding gasket that expands when exposed to high temperatures, capable of expanding 20 to 30 times more than normal when subjected to high heat. It prevents fire and smoke from escaping into the safe area.

Regarding accessories, depending on the location where the Fire-Resistant Door is installed, different accessories such as panic bars, lever locks, or hydraulic push/pull handles may be used to facilitate quick evacuation. Additionally, under the force of the hydraulic door closer, the Fire-Resistant Door automatically closes to prevent the heat from escaping or the fire from spreading to a safe area.

  • Hydraulic door closer: This is also an indispensable part of fire-resistant steel doors that functions to keep the door always closed, ensuring absolute safety for everyone during evacuation if a fire occurs.

Moreover, to complete a set of fire-resistant steel doors, there are other accessories made of steel or stainless steel, such as locks, handles, panic bars, etc., ensuring robustness for the door.

6. Inspection Procedure for Fire-Resistant Doors

As technical products designed for fire prevention, fire-resistant doors must meet stringent standards. To carry out the inspection, you need to gather information and submit documents to the Fire Prevention and Fighting Police Department. There are two forms of door inspection: inspection by type, model, firefighting and fire prevention means, or batch inspection. The inspection certificate is valid for 24 months. For batch inspection, no more than 5% of the means and no fewer than 10 samples are taken for testing.

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The inspection will be conducted through the following methods: Checking the origin, production time, serial number, and technical specifications of the device; Examining the type, model, and appearance of the device; Testing, experimenting, and conducting trials using a probability sampling method; Evaluating the results and creating an inspection report for the device. Regulations on fire prevention and firefighting are increasingly stringent. Therefore, doors need to undergo inspection to ensure compliance before being allowed for sale in the market.

7. Reputable Consultation and Installation of Fire-Resistant Steel Doors

ALUMAX Vietnam Joint Stock Company – Manufacturing and Distributing Genuine Fire-Resistant Doors



Headquater: No.70 Nam Duong str, Thuong Thanh ward, Long Bien distric, Hanoi city.

Hotline: 0961 362 362


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